Most people have suffered a burn or scald at least once in their lives, usually sunburn. Thankfully, instinct correctly tells us to cool it using cold water, but there’s much more to treating a burn than this basic step.
What is a burn?
The World Health Organisation define a burn as:
...an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals.”
What is a scald?
People often refer to scalds when talking about burns - the difference between them is that burns are caused by a dry source (for example, a flame or the sun) and scalds, a wet source (like hot liquids and oils).
Understanding the Depth of Burns
Burns are categorised as follows:
(Previously named 1st degree burns)
How to Identify a Superficial Burn:
Superficial burns are identified by redness, discomfort and pain, swelling may be present
(Previously named 2nd degree burns)
How to Identify a Partial Thickness Burn:
Partial Thickness burns are identified by blistering, redness, pain, swelling, may ooze and have evidence of superficial burn around the partial thickness burn
(Previously named 3rd degree burns)
How to Identify a Full Thickness Burn:
Full Thickness burns are identified by deep, significant destruction of skin layers, charred, waxy, smells burnt, unlikely to be painful at injury site due to nerve damage, evidence of partial and superficial thickness burn around the full thickness burn
Causes of Burns
The cause of burns can be separated into three different categories:
General Treatment of Burns
The principles of burns first aid treatment are:
There are also a few clear Do NOTs when treating burns:
How To Treat Non-Chemical Burns
Some burns are more specialist and therefore require specific or varied treatment. Examples of specialist burns include:
How to Treat Chemical Burns
The treatment for chemical burns differs from that of non-chemical burns with the key differences being that you should:
How to Treat Electrical Burns
Electrical burns broadly sit into two categories based on origin:
In all such cases it is important to ensure you do not place yourself in any danger when providing assistance and first aid and to ensure medical attention is sought. In the case of high voltage burns it may be necessary to stay a set distance away from a patient, keep bystanders away and you will need to seek help from the emergency services.
Use of clingfilm and specialist burn dressings
Both first aid and pre-hospital care by ambulance staff advocates the use of clingfilm as part of the treatment for burns. It is important to be aware of the following when using clingfilm:
A range of specialist burns dressings are available and the current BS8599 first aid kits now include a small burn dressing. These dressings are ideal in situations where access to cool running water is limited. As always, the use of such specialist dressings should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and it is important to remember these items have expiry dates - so check your kit now and restock with us if needed.
The impact of burns is significant and they have the potential to be life-threatening. Fortunately, the vast majority of burns can be treated safely using the basics outlined above, without the need for attendance at hospital.
As first aid treatment advice is constantly evolving it is important to receive formal training and regular updates from a competent first aid provider. Having the latest first aid manuals and books available at home or in the workplace can also be helpful.
We all know that prevention is better than cure, but with rare glimpses of sunshine in the UK we are easily tempted to expose ourselves to it for too long. So before you end up with sunburn, catch yourself on the hot BBQ or scald yourself when next making a hot drink, why not head over to our burn care section and stock up on some burn care supplies?
Should you need further advice on burns kits at home or in the workplace, you can call a member of our team for help on 01329 311451.